CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
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Widespread information nowadays about the endangered status of many prominent species, such as the tiger and elephants, might make the need for such a convention seem obvious. But at the time when the ideas for CITES were first formed, in the 1960s, international discussion of the regulation of wildlife trade for conservation purposes was something relatively new. With hindsight, the need for CITES is clear. Annually, international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and to include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them, including food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicines. Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are high and the trade in them, together with other factors, such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting their populations and even bringing some species close to extinction. Many wildlife species in trade are not endangered, but the existence of an agreement to ensure the sustainability of the trade is important in order to safeguard these resources for the future.
Because the trade in wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation to safeguard certain species from over-exploitation. CITES was conceived in the spirit of such cooperation. Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 30,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs.
CITES was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of IUCN (The World Conservation Union). The text of the Convention was finally agreed at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington DC., United States of America, on 3 March 1973, and on 1 July 1975 CITES entered in force. The original of the Convention was deposited with the Depositary Government in the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic.
CITES is an international agreement to which States (countries) adhere voluntarily. States that have agreed to be bound by the Convention (‘joined’ CITES) are known as Parties. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level.
For many years CITES has been among the conservation agreements with the largest membership, with now 175 Parties.
Mission statement: “Traffic works to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature.”
Traffic has an enviable reputation as a reliable and impartial organisation, a leader in the field of conservation as it relates to wildlife trade. TRAFFIC was established in 1976 and has developed into a global network, research-driven and action-oriented, committed to delivering innovative and practical conservation solutions based on the latest information.
TRAFFIC is governed by the TRAFFIC committee, a steering group composed of members of TRAFFIC’s partner organizations, WWF and IUCN. A central aim of TRAFFIC’s activities is to contribute to the wildlife trade-related priorities of these partners. The organisation employs around 100 staff based in nearly 30 countries, worldwide.
“is of a world in which trade in wild plants and animals is managed at sustainable levels without damaging the integrity of ecological systems and in such a manner that it makes a significant contribution to human needs, supports local and national economies and helps to motivate commitments to the conservation of wild species and their habitats.”
TRAFFIC works in close co-operation with the Secretariat of CITES. A TRAFFIC priority is to promote international co-operation to address wildlife trade issues, with particular emphasis on CITES. TRAFFIC provides information and assistance to help the decision-making processes at CITES, supporting efforts to ensure that international wildlife trade is at sustainable levels and does not pose a threat to the conservation of species. In 1999, the two organizations signed a memorandum of understanding (PDF, 24 KB), with the purpose to undertake joint activities for capacity building.
Roughly every 3 years, a meeting takes place of those governments “Parties” who have joined CITES. These meetings are called Conference of the Parties (CoP). At a CoP, Parties decide what modifications are needed to the Convention and its Appendices. Proposals and Agenda documents are put forward by Parties who have trade issues to discuss, and these are either adopted, rejected or modified following discussion amongst the government delegates present. Together with the IUCN, TRAFFIC publishes in-depth Analyses of all the formal Proposals put forward by Parties to be discussed at CoP. TRAFFIC publishes its Recommendations on each decision to be taken, based on the results of these Analyses.